GIS Implementation for Household Survey Using vMAP
The household survey is conducted to list population data related to the project carried out by certain parties. Projects that usually require household surveys include projects with the theme of poverty, health, and population census projects. Both the government and non-governmental organizations (as initiators), need survey data to determine strategies for the continuation of their projects, for example an organization wanting to send assistance to the poor, where the intended poor are those who fit their project criteria, then based on the results of the household survey it can be seen the distribution of the population that falls into the criteria of poor population.
Why are household surveys needed? If the survey is not carried out, it is likely that what will happen is a mistake in determining the target, for example the target recipient of assistance is the poor population category, but those who receive assistance are the rich population category.
One obstacle in conducting a household survey is the amount of data that must be collected, the data must be stored in a good database so that it can be called if needed again to be analyzed or updated, with the help of Geographical Information System technology then it can be resolved, because GIS technology has the ability in processing to data management.
To clarify the above description, the author uses the use of a case in this article, the Health Project for Vaccination in Nigeria by a Non-Governmental Organization.
Relationship of GIS with Household Survey
There are many types of implementation of GIS technology, as one of the implementation of GIS technology, vMAP, a web-based GIS portal, has features to assist in conducting household surveys, both from the pre-survey stage to the post-survey stage, some of which are:
- Making a survey location map
- Input of survey data results.
- Determination of location of targeted households
Making a Survey Location Map
A large-scale project certainly requires a lot of time, money, and effort, therefore a sample location is determined in order to reduce these things. The location sample can at least represent the condition of the population in an area, for example if an area planned as a survey target has a total of 20 villages in it, then several villages can be taken to be sampled.
The smallest research unit in a household survey is the respondent from each household who is usually represented as a building footprint on the map, for more details, here is an explanation of making a building footprint using a feature in vMAP called, Add Polygon. This is a useful feature for plotting buildings as a representation of each household.
The figure below is an example of the building plotting result using the Add Polygon feature, with a location in a village in Nigeria, which is a sample location.
Figure 1. Building Plotting Result
Input of survey data results
Each household (in this case represented as building footprint) that has been surveyed produces primary data. To facilitate the management of primary data, vMAP has a feature called Object Inspector to input the data into the building layer. The aim is to serve as a database if the data is needed again later.
The following figure is the use of the Object Inspector feature to input survey data.
Figure 2. Input Survey Data
Determination of location of targeted households
Projects that require a household survey must have a target object with certain criteria, if the wrong target is arguably the project is not very successful. With the help of a feature in vMAP called Slider, we can filter out the criteria that are targeted in the project based on survey information. For example, still with the same case study: health project in Nigeria, aims to provide health funding assistance with the target is households that have toddlers aged 1-3 years, income per month <100 $, and have more than 2 children.
Figure 3. Housingholds that are included in the criteria
Overall, a household survey is needed for health and poverty projects to determine strategies and targets according to criteria.